Bremen 2

bremen 2

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By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons. Charlemagne , the King of the Franks , made a new law, the Lex Saxonum , which forbid the Saxons worshipping Odin the god of the Saxons ; instead they had to convert to Christianity on pain of death.

In Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. In the archdiocese of Hamburg merged with the diocese of Bremen to become Hamburg-Bremen Archdiocese, with its seat in Bremen, and in the following centuries the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen were the driving force behind the Christianisation of Northern Germany.

In , at the behest of Archbishop Rimbert , Kaiser Arnulf of Carinthia , the Carolingian King of East Francia , granted Bremen the rights to hold its own markets, mint its own coins and make its own customs laws.

Around that time trade with Norway, England and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city.

The city was recognised as a political entity with its own laws. Property within the municipal boundaries could not be subjected to feudal overlordship; this also applied to serfs who acquired property, if they lived in the city for a year and a day, after which they were to be regarded as free persons.

Property was to be freely inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. But in reality Bremen did not have complete independence from the Prince-Archbishops: Bremen played a double role: Since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought.

In Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In , the number of inhabitants reached 20, Around this time the Hansekogge cog ship became a unique product of Bremen.

The city had to bail them out. In an extra tax, levied to finance the ransom, caused an uprising among the burghers and artisans that was put down by the city council after much bloodshed.

When these councillors appealed to Albert II for help, many artisans and burghers regarded this as a treasonous act, fearing that this appeal to the prince would only provoke him to abolish the autonomy of the city.

The fortified city maintained its own guards, not allowing soldiers of the Prince-Archbishop to enter it. Acus episcopi , first mentioned in , for all clergy, including the Prince-Archbishop.

The narrowness of the gate made it physically impossible for him to enter surrounded by his knights. Afterward, the city had to again render him homage: In return, the new council granted Albert a credit amounting to the then-enormous sum of 20, Bremen marks.

But city councillors of the previous council, who had fled to the County of Oldenburg , gained the support of the counts and recaptured the city on June 27, The members of the intermediate council were regarded as traitors and beheaded, and the city de facto regained its autonomy.

Thereupon, the city of Bremen, which had for a long time held an autonomous status, acted almost completely independent of the Prince-Archbishop.

In Bremen again lent money to Albert II against the collateral of his mint, which was from then on run by the city council, which took over his right to mint coins.

Thus Bremen gained a powerful position in the Prince-Archbishopric ecclesiastical principality , in effect sidelining its actual ruler.

The declining knightly family of Bederkesa had become deeply indebted, [8]: They lost the rest of their claims to the city of Bremen, when in its troops prevented the three Mandelsloh brothers from lending them to Albert II as territorial power.

Thus Bremen gained a foothold to uphold peace and order in its forecourt on the lower course of the Weser. In the city of Bremen became the liege lord of the noble families holding the estates of Altluneburg and Elmlohe , who had previously been vassals of the Knights of Bederkesa.

The city replaced in the old wooden statue of Roland , which had been destroyed in by the Bederkesa, with a larger limestone model; this statue has managed to survive six centuries and two World Wars into the 21st.

In the jointly ruling dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg , Eric IV and his sons Eric V and John IV , pawned their share in the Bederkesa bailiwick and castle to the Senate of Bremen , including all "they have in the jurisdictions in the Frisian Land of Wursten and in Lehe Bremerhaven , which belongs to the aforementioned castle and Vogtei".

During the s, Bremen was often in conflict with the Dutch states. The city began offering contracts to pirates to attack its enemies, and it became a regional hub of piracy.

These pirates targeted foreign shipping around the North Sea and captured numerous vessels. One notorious captain, known as Grote Gherd "Big Gerry" , captured 13 ships from Flanders in a single expedition.

In the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen , which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown.

In , the chapter, which had in the meantime become predominantly Lutheran, appointed the Dutch Albert Rizaeus , called Hardenberg, as the first Cathedral pastor of Protestant affiliation.

So in — after heated disputes — Rizaeus was dismissed and banned from the city and the cathedral again closed its doors.

At the beginning of the 17th century, Bremen continued to play its double role, wielding fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, but not allowing the Prince-Archbishopric to rule in the city without its consent.

John Frederick , Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, desperately tried to keep his Prince-Archbishopric out of the war, with the complete agreement of the Estates and the city of Bremen.

In the territories comprising the Lower Saxon Circle decided to recruit an army in order to maintain an armed neutrality , since troops of the Catholic League were already operating in the neighbouring Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle and dangerously close to their region.

The concomitant effects of the war, debasement of the currency and rising prices, had already caused inflation which was also felt in Bremen.

Thus the troops of the Catholic League were otherwise occupied and Bremen seemed relieved. Christian IV and his surviving troops fled to the Prince-Archbishopric and established their headquarters in Stade.

Tilly then invaded the Prince-Archbishopric and captured its southern part. Bremen shut its city gates and entrenched itself behind its improved fortifications.

In , Tilly turned on the city, and Bremen paid him a ransom of 10, rixdollars in order to spare it a siege. The city remained unoccupied throughout the war.

In September Francis William of Wartenberg , appointed by Ferdinand II as chairman of the imperial restitution commission for the Lower Saxon Circle, in carrying out the provisions of the Edict of Restitution, ordered the Bremian Chapter, seated in Bremen, to render an account of all the capitular and prince-archiepiscopal estates not to be confused with the Estates.

Even Lutheran capitulars were uneasy in Calvinistic Bremen. The council argued that the city had long been Protestant, but the restitution commission replied that the city was de jure a part of the Prince-Archbishopric, so Protestantism had illegitimately taken over Catholic-owned estates.

The city council replied that under these circumstances it would rather separate from the Holy Roman Empire and join the quasi-independent Republic of the Seven Netherlands.

In October an army, newly recruited by John Frederick, started to reconquer the Prince-Archbishopric — helped by forces from Sweden and the city of Bremen.

John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.

With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too.

Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege.

Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.

With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven.

When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.

But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.

In the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. So on 15 November Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle.

From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. Friendly and efficient contacts. A rapid, reliable service.

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Book with the Bremen experts. Guidade turer, biljetter mm. Shopping i Bremen Strosa, titta, shoppa. The recent season-by-season performance of the club: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

German amateur football championship, accessed: Liga tables and results in German Weltfussball. SV Werder Bremen in German. Retrieved 3 September Weser-Stadion Weserstadion Platz Liga Promotion to 2.

Bremen-Liga V —19 clubs. Retrieved from " https:

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5 thoughts on “Bremen 2”

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